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Section 6: The Pacific Northwest

Twain's party crossed the Cascades, on the switchbacks, in about two hours. It took six more hours to reach Seattle. Native Americans were pretty much gone from the area, the Treaty of Point Elliott was one of the major instruments in their removal and confinement in reservations. Some did, however, retain fishing rights. Seattle had become the western terminus of the Great Western railway, reaching the city in 1893. Four transcontinental railways jostled for position along the waterfront. Japan's Nippon Yusen Kaisha shipping line contracted with the Great Northern in 1896 to begin regular steamship service between Seattle and Japan. J.J. Hill soon had his own ocean liners, the Minnesota and the Dakota, carrying passengers and goods from Smith Cove to China, Japan and the Philippines. Twain's party transferred to the "Little greyhound of Puget Sound", the Flyer. Twain was not impressed with the baggage handlers. They arrived in Tacoma at five o'clock. The ladies remain there while Major Pond and Twain travel to Portland, Oregon. The Northern Pacific ran from Seattle to Kalama, where a steam ferry crossed the Columbia River, to Goble. They reached Portland at 8:22 to find the Marquam Grand packed with a waiting audience and Standing Room Only signs. They depart Portland at 11 am the next day and travel to Olympia. They are both back in Tacoma on the 12th and the entire party in Seattle on the 13th. By the 14th they are in Whatcom, an area that will become Bellingham. Twain had a bad cold and his throat was in poor condition, but he lectured at the Lighthouse Theater, the fourth floor of a building with no fire escapes. On the 15th, they are in Vancouver. Because of bad health and other delays, they remain in Vancouver until August 20th, arriving in Victoria around midnight. There he gives two lectures and a speech at a supper club. August 23, Friday, Sam, Olivia and Clara depart Victoria B.C. on board the R.M.S. Warrimoo, bound for Australia and a journey around the world.
Skykomish

First People of the Skykomish Valley, called the Skykomish, the extended group of families for whom the river was named. The Treaty of Point Elliot, signed in January 1855 at Mukilteo, created a single reservation at Tulalip (northwest of Everett) for the indigenous peoples living along the Snohomish, Skykomish, and Snoqualmie rivers. That was the beginning of the end for the Skykomish People for there are no people left who identify themselves as purely Skykomish. Seven village sites existed between present-day Monroe and Index at the time of white contact in the 1850s.

Snohomish

Snohomish was founded around 1858 by Emory C. Ferguson, E. F. Cady and others. It was originally known as Cadyville, but changed its name to Snohomish City in 1871. The name Snohomish comes from the name of the dominant local Native American tribe, whose meaning is widely disputed. One of the first inland cities in the Puget Sound region, Snohomish was built where a planned military road connecting Fort Steilacoom and Fort Bellingham was set to cross the Snohomish River.

Monroe

Monroe was once the site of the Great Northern Railway's botanical gardens where fresh flowers for their passenger trains were once grown. Each day these flowers would be loaded aboard the Western Star for distribution throughout the system so that each dining car passenger might have fresh flowers with their meal.
http://nwownrailfan.com/archives/features/0202camp.html

Index

The Town of Index is a riverside hamlet in the shadow of 5,979-foot Mount Index in Snohomish County. It is hemmed in by the north fork of the Skykomish River to the south, and by a steep granite cliff, the Town Wall, to the north. The area was home to the Skykomish People before European immigrants came to mine the mountains and log the forest. The granite wall was to become a large quarry in 1904. Thus mining, logging, and quarrying defined the town's prosperity early in the twentieth century. At its height in 1905, the town's population reached 500, with perhaps a thousand more in the surrounding area. With the loss of mining, quarrying, and logging in the 1930s, recreation was to become the prime means of employment.

Everett

The land on which Everett was founded was surrendered to the United States by its original inhabitants under the 1855 Treaty of Point Elliott. Permanent settlement in the area by European descendants started in 1861 when Dennis Brigham built a cabin on a 160-acre claim on the shore of Port Gardner Bay. Over the next several years a handful of settlers moved to the area, but it wasn't until 1890 that plans for platting a town were conceived.

The Treaty of Point Elliot

The Treaty of Point Elliott of 1855, is the lands settlement treaty between the United States government and the nominal Native American tribes of the greater Puget Sound region. in the recently formed Washington Territory (March 1853), one of about thirteen treaties between the U.S. and Native Nations in what is now Washington.The treaty was signed on 22 January 1855, at Point Elliott, now Mukilteo (Muckl-te-oh ), Washington, and ratified 8 March and 11 April 1859.

Seattle

Seattle's location, harbor, and commercial development made it a logical place for the Great Northern's terminus, and Hill had the good sense to engage the persuasive and influential Thomas Burke as his local agent. Having previously achieved the creation of Railroad Avenue, Burke had little difficulty persuading the city council -- over the vociferous objections of the Northern Pacific -- to give the Great Northern a 60-foot right-of-way down the middle of the wood-planked roadway.

The Flyer of Puget Sound

Flyer was an American steamboat that served from 1891 to 1929 on Puget Sound. From 1918 until the end of her service, she was officially known as the Washington. The Flyer ran for millions of miles at high speed, more than any inland vessel in the world. This 1891 steamer Flyer should not be confused with the steamboat Flyer built on Lake Coeur d'Alene in 1905, although the Coeur d'Alene vessel was inspired both in design and name by the success of the Puget Sound ship.

The Northern Pacific Railway

Kalama was entirely a Northern Pacific railroad creation. It was unofficially born in May 1870 when the Northern Pacific railroad turned the first shovel of dirt. Northern Pacific built a dock, a sawmill, a car shop, a roundhouse, a turntable, hotels, a hospital, stores, homes. In just a few months in 1870, the working population exploded to approximately 3500 and the town had added tents, saloons, a brewery, and a gambling hall. Soon the town had a motto: "Rail Meets Sail".

Kalama Ferry

On October 9 of 1884 - Northern Pacific puts the world's second largest ferry, the 338-ft. Steamboat Kalama (later renamed Tacoma), into service. The steamer was brought out from New York by the American ship Tillie E. Starbuck, her manifest showing the ferry-boat to consist of 57,159 separate pieces. It transported trains across the Columbia first from Hunters and later from Goble to Kalama, Washington from 1884 until 1908. The trains were loaded in their entirety (engine and cars) onto the three-track ferry and taken across the river. Sometime between 1891 and 1893 the Oregon slip was moved to Goble,

Portland

Named after Portland, Maine, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail. Its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, and the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portland,_Oregon

Olympia

The site of Olympia has been home to Lushootseed-speaking peoples for thousands of years, including Squaxin, Nisqually, Puyallup, Chehalis, Suquamish, and Duwamish. The first recorded visit by Europeans was in 1792 when Peter Puget and a crew from the British Vancouver Expedition charted the site. In 1846, Edmund Sylvester and Levi Smith jointly claimed the land that now comprises downtown Olympia. In 1851, the U.S. Congress established the Customs District of Puget Sound for Washington Territory and Olympia became the home of the customs house.

Tacoma

The city of Tacoma and surrounding areas were inhabited for thousands of years by Native Americans, predominantly the Puyallup people, who lived in settlements on the delta. In 1852, a Swede named Nicolas Delin constructed a sawmill powered by water on a creek near the head of Commencement Bay, but the small settlement that grew up around it was abandoned during the Indian War of 1855–56.

Seattle

Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically, then gone into precipitous decline, but it has typically used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure. The first such boom, covering the early years of the city, rode on the lumber industry. During this period the road now known as Yesler Way won the nickname "Skid Road", supposedly after the timber skidding down the hill to Henry Yesler's sawmill.

Whatcom

Whatcom is the original name for the city of Bellingham. The name of Bellingham is derived from the bay on which the city is situated. George Vancouver, who visited the area in June 1792, named the bay for Sir William Bellingham, the controller of the storekeeper's account of the Royal Navy. Prior to Euro-American settlement, this was in the homeland of Coast Salish peoples of the Lummi and neighboring tribes. The first Caucasian settlers reached the area in 1854. In 1858, the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush caused thousands of miners, storekeepers, and scalawags to head north from California.

Vancouver

Archaeological records indicate the presence of Aboriginal people in the Vancouver area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. The city is located in the traditional territories of the Squamish, Musqueam, and Tseil-Waututh (Burrard) peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Kitsilano, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River.

Victoria

Clemens, Clara, and Olivia aboard the S.S. Warimoo. Victoria, British Columber. August 23.
Clemens aboard the S.S. Warimoo. Victoria, British Columber. August 23.
S.S. Warimoo sailing for Australia, August 23.

Mark Twain Archive, Elmira College courtesy of Kevin Mac Donnell, Austin, Texas.

Credits

Everett, Washington - Wikipedia
Fears, David - Mark Twain Day By Day
Ferry ... Kalama, Washington, to Goble, Oregon - The Columbia River, A Photographic Journey
Flyer (steamboat) - Wikipedia
Goble, Oregon - Wikipedia
Index, Washington - Wikipedia
Kalama, Washington - Wikipedia
Major James Pond - Eccentricities of Genius: Memories of Famous Men and Women of the Platform and Stage
Monroe, Washington - Wikipedia
Mukilteo, Washington - Wikipedia
Olympia, Washington - Wikipedia
Port of Seattle, Founding of - HistoryLink.org
Portland, Oregon - Wikipedia
Railroad History of Portland, OR - Pacific Railroad Preservation Association
Seattle - Wikipedia
Skykomish, Washington - Wikipedia
Snohomish, Washington - Wikipedia
Stevens Pass - The Northwest's Own Railfan
Tacoma, Washington - Wikipedia
Vancouver - Wikipedia

Transcripts

Well, we had arrived at the base of the switchbacks at about 7 am, in the morning. It took about 2 hours to cross over the switchbacks and about 6 more hours to travel from Skykomish to Seattle. They served trout along the way, fresh caught trout. [00:32]

As early as 1859 Emory C. Ferguson and Edson Cady had trekked through the valley, to a mountain pass, a route that had been used by the Skykomish to cross the Cascades to visit and trade with tribes on the east side. Ferguson and Cady named the spot “Cady Pass,” but were blocked by heavy snow. They returned in the spring to improve the route, but mining in Eastern Washington had died out, and the plan was abandoned.

In the late 1880s prospectors looking for gold, silver, lead, and copper followed Ferguson and Cady’s rough trail on their way to the mining areas of Silver Creek. By April 1890, Amos D. Gunn and his wife, Persis, had arrived from Kansas and purchased a squatter’s claim with a small log cabin serving as a miners’ hotel, “Cady Lodge.” They constructed a larger building that became the primary hostelry and supply depot for those heading east to the towns of Galena, Mineral City, and Monte Cristo. Persis Gunn was impressed by Index Mountain, which looked to her like an “index finger pointing toward heaven”, thus the name “Index” was chosen when a post office was established in December 1891. The name did not originate with her, however, as “Index Mt.” was on the maps long before the Gunns arrived. It does look like an index finger if viewed from the west, but it was renamed Mount Baring in 1917, and the mountain to the west, called “West Index Mt.” was renamed to Mount Index. 

The Gunns’ settlement prospered not only through the need for lodging and supplies by the miners, but because of the 1890 surveys for the Great Northern Railway. John F. Stevens hired Amos and his son Luther for horse-packing a survey crew up to Cady Pass in tandem with Stevens's survey of Stevens Pass. Track building from 1891 through 1893 added to the influx of laborers needing accommodations.   [03:32]

The Town of Index is a riverside hamlet in the shadow of 5,979-foot Mount Index in Snohomish County. It is hemmed in by the north fork of the Skykomish River to the south, and by a steep granite cliff, the Town Wall, to the north. The area was home to the Skykomish People before European immigrants came to mine the mountains and log the forest. The granite wall was to become a large quarry in 1904. Thus mining, logging, and quarrying defined the town's prosperity early in the twentieth century. At its height in 1905, the town's population reached 500, with perhaps a thousand more in the surrounding area. With the loss of mining, quarrying, and logging in the 1930s, recreation was to become the prime means of employment. [04:45]

First People of the Skykomish Valley, called the Skykomish. The Treaty of Point Elliot, signed in January 1855 at Mukilteo, created a single reservation at Tulalip (northwest of Everett) for the indigenous peoples living along the Snohomish, Skykomish, and Snoqualmie rivers.That was the beginning of the end for the Skykomish People, the extended group of families for whom the river was named, for there are no people left who identify themselves as purely Skykomish. Seven village sites existed between present-day Monroe and Index at the time of white contact in the 1850s. Easternmost was the village near the confluence of the south and north forks of the Skykomish River. Here the members of the Skykomish group were called the fern people, not surprising in an area with an average of about 100 inches of rain per year. A large potlatch house was located here in a permanent winter village.Elders of the tribes that settled at Tulalip told anthropologist Colin Tweddell that “The Index people were the genuine Skykomish tribe, rather wild; they would come up in canoes and suddenly be gone, hidden in the rocks. [06:36]

Coming to town by river, as pioneers did in many Snohomish County communities, was never a possibility for Index settlers. The river was too swift and hazardous for navigation by steamboat. Early pioneers came by horse on rough trails until the Great Northern Railway was completed in January 1893. Then transcontinental trains and two locals called “Dinkies” provided reliable transportation. The depot was literally at the center of the community.

The county road to Index and Galena was completed in 1911. As autos were developed and roads expanded, including Washington's first “Scenic Highway,” following the 1911 road directly through town and competition from the Index Stage Company became serious. That bus service lobbied to expand its route to the top of Stevens Pass via the new highway to Wenatchee that opened on July 11, 1925. Once the extension was granted, the Great Northern stopped service of the beloved “Dinkies,” which had delivered postal bags and passengers every morning and evening except Sundays.   [08:21]

Monroe was once the site of the Great Northern Railway's botanical gardens where fresh flowers for their passenger trains were once grown. Each day these flowers would be loaded aboard the Western Star for distribution throughout the system so that each dining car passenger might have fresh flowers with their meal. [08:50]

Snohomish was founded around 1858 by Emory C. Ferguson, E. F. Cady and others. It was originally known as Cadyville, but changed its name to Snohomish City in 1871. The name Snohomish comes from the name of the dominant local Native American tribe. One of the first inland cities in the Puget Sound region, Snohomish was built where a planned military road connecting Fort Steilacoom and Fort Bellingham was set to cross the Snohomish River. The road, proposed in the wake of the Pig War, was intended to be built far enough inland to be safe from British naval attacks. Although the road was never completed, Snohomish quickly became a center of commerce in the expanding region.

In 1861, Snohomish County separated from Island County and the Village of Snohomish was voted the county seat. It remained so until 1897 when the county seat was relocated to the larger, yet much newer neighboring city of Everett, Washington after a controversial and contested county-wide vote. [10:26]

The land on which Everett was founded was surrendered to the United States by its original inhabitants under the 1855 Treaty of Point Elliott. Permanent settlement in the area by European descendants started in 1861 when Dennis Brigham built a cabin on a 160-acre claim on the shore of Port Gardner Bay. Over the next several years a handful of settlers moved to the area, but it wasn't until 1890 that plans for platting a town were conceived.

On September 1, 1890, Henry Hewitt filed a bond on the north end of what was to become the Everett town site, beginning the process of acquisition that would become the Everett Land Company later along with Charles L. Colby and Colgate Hoyt. In October 1890, the Hewitt-Colby syndicate decided to name their industrial city after Everett Colby, the fifteen-year-old son of investor Charles L. Colby, who had displayed a prodigious appetite at dinner. Everett Colby in turn was named for orator Edward Everett.On November 19, 1890, the Articles of Incorporation for the Everett Land Company were filed, with Henry Hewitt Jr. as president. Everett was officially incorporated on May 4, 1893, the year the Great Northern Railway came to the town. Both Hewitt and the Rucker brothers had speculated that James J. Hill would make the town the terminus of his railroad. However Hill continued the railroad along the shore of Puget Sound to Seattle. Although it succeeded in building the city, the Everett Land Company was a failure for its investors. The outside investors withdrew, and the Company's holdings were transferred to a new company controlled by Hill. The Ruckers, who helped broker the deal, stayed in Everett and became leading citizens of the young city. [13:08]

The Treaty of Point Elliott of 1855, is the lands settlement treaty between the United States government and the nominal Native American tribes of the greater Puget Sound region. in the recently formed Washington Territory (March 1853), one of about thirteen treaties between the U.S. and Native Nations in what is now Washington State. The treaty was signed on 22 January 1855, at Point Elliott, now Mukilteo (Muckl-te-oh ), Washington, and ratified 8 March and 11 April 1859. Lands were being occupied by European-Americans since settlement of the Washington Territory began in from about 1845. And they needed to get these people out of the way. By and large, Native leaders were willing to sell their land (although they had utterly different conceptions of land use and no cultural comprehension of European-American property rights concepts). They rejected proposals for their relocation from Puget Sound country. Signatories to the Treaty of Point Elliott included Chief Seattle (si'áb Si'ahl) and Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens. Representatives from the  Duwamish,Suquamish,  Snoqualmie,  Snohomish,  Lummi,  Skagit,  Swinomish, (in order of signing) and other tribes also signed. The treaty established the Suquamish  Port Madison,  Tulalip, Swin-a-mish (Swinomish), and  Lummi reservations. The Native American signers included: Suquamish and Dwamish (Duwamish)  Chief Seattle, Snoqualmoo (Snoqualmie) and Sno-ho-mish Chief Patkanim as Pat-ka-nam, Lummi Chief Chow-its-hoot, and Skagit Chief Goliah. The treaty guaranteed both fishing rights and reservations. Reservations were not designated for the Duwamish, Skagit, Snohomish, and Snoqualmie peoples. [15:57]

Seattle's location, harbor, and commercial development made it a logical place for the Great Northern's terminus, and Hill had the good sense to engage the persuasive and influential Thomas Burke as his local agent. Having previously achieved the creation of Railroad Avenue, Burke had little difficulty persuading the city council -- over the vociferous objections of the Northern Pacific -- to give the Great Northern a 60-foot right-of-way down the middle of the wood-planked roadway.

The Great Northern reached Seattle in 1893, and by 1895 there were four transcontinental rail lines jostling for position on the waterfront. Seattle finally had its continental connections and a rapidly burgeoning international trade. Japan's Nippon Yusen Kaisha shipping line contracted with the Great Northern in 1896 to begin regular steamship service between Seattle and Japan. Hill soon launched his own ocean liners, the Minnesota and the Dakota, which carried passengers and goods from Smith Cove to China, Japan, and the Philippines. [17:54]

"We transferred at Seattle to the little 'Greyhound of Puget Sound'— The Flyer —said to be the fastest steamer in the world. 'Mark' sat on the deck of The Flyer watching the baggage-smashers removing our trunks from the baggage car to the truck which was to convey them to The Flyer, and exclaimed: 'Oh, how I do wish one of those trunks were filled with dynamite and that all the baggage-destroyers on earth were gathered about it, and I just far enough off to see them hurled into Kingdom Come!' [18:50]

Flyer was the first vessel ordered by the Columbia River and Puget Sound Navigation Company, a concern formed by Capt. U.B. Scott and others, which already controlled the fast sternwheeler Telephone on the Columbia River, and on Puget Sound, the then new and fast sternwheeler Bailey Gatzert as well as the express passenger boat Fleetwood. Flyer was built at the Johnson shipyard in Portland, Oregon of Douglas fir cut in Oregon and prepared for construction by prolonged storage in salt water. Unusual for an express passenger boat, Flyer included a dining room, which eventually contributed to her great popularity. Flyer was designed to be the fastest propeller-driven vessel in the Pacific Northwest, and was very fine-lined, that is, tall and narrow. Captain Scott was so proud of his new ship that he rode on her as she was launched into the Willamette River. This proved to be a mistake. Neither boilers nor engines had been installed in Flyer before launch, and without their weight deep in her hull to act as ballast, she simply flopped over in the water, and Captain Scott had to exit by climbing out a window. After that, another hull was built around her with the hope of making her a little less top heavy, but this was imperfectly sealed, so water sloshed around in between the hulls for the rest of the vessel's operational life. Surprising this did not affect the Flyer's speed, although she did acquire a permanent list to port, or at least the hint of a list.

Once finally completed, the company sent Flyer to Puget Sound and brought Bailey Gatzert around to the Columbia River to run with the Telephone.Flyer was powered by a triple compound steam engine. It was a duplicate of one installed in J.P. Morgan's yacht Corsair.  The engine drew national attention at the time it was built. It rose above the passenger deck, and passengers used to look forward to a chance to watch the huge low pressure cylinder, almost five feet across, drive the vessel at high speed.

Flyer was originally a wood burner, consuming 24 cords of wood during every day of operation. Her firebox could hold two cords of wood at once. Although her engine was capable of generating 2,000 horsepower (1,500 kW) at 200 pounds steam pressure, at no time was she ever equipped with a boiler that generated more than 150 pounds of steam, thus her engine never could produce more than 1,200 horsepower (890 kW).

Flyer was placed on the run from Seattle to Tacoma. Her first master was Capt. Harry K. Struve , and her first pilot was Capt. Henry Carter The run was 28 miles long one way, and Flyer routinely completed it in less than 90 minutes. This was the beginning of many years of successful timely service, so much so that the Flyer's advertising slogan became "Fly on the Flyer". The future successful career of the Flyer was almost ended at midnight on June 14, 1892 by fire. This started when Flyer was taking on wood for fuel at the Commercial Dock in Seattle. Suddenly fire broke out. Within five minutes the fire had swept through the vessel. The fireboat Snoqualmie and all available units of the Seattle fire department responded to the fire. They were able to get the fire under control before serious damage was done to the hull or machinery. However, all of the vessel's upper works were destroyed. Flyer was quickly rebuilt and returned to service by the end of the summer of 1892.

She made four round-trips a day from Seattle to Tacoma. Flyer ran an average of 344 days a year, and was considered highly reliable by the population. In 1908 it was calculated that Flyer had completed enough trips from Seattle to Tacoma to go around the world 61 times, and had carried over 3,000,000 people, more than the population of New York City at the time, and this without serious injury to any passenger. This does not mean there were not accidents. Over the years, Flyer was involved in a number accidents, collisions and fires, including some serious ones which threatened the lives of those on board her or other vessels. [25:05]

We arrived in Tacoma at five o'clock, and have sumptuous apartments at The Tacoma, a grand caravansery built by the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. The ' receiver' is an old friend of mine, formerly a contractor on the Northern Pacific Railroad. I also found another old friend in C. H. Prescott—one of the prosperous. He is local 'receiver' of the Northern Pacific Railroad, the highest distinction a man can attain out here. This is another overgrown metropolis. We can't see it, nor anything else, owing to the dense smoke everywhere. Here in Tacoma the ladies are to remain and rest, while ' Mark' and I take in Portland and Olympia.

Friday, August 9th At Tacoma early this morning Mr. S. E. Moffett, of the San Francisco Examiner, appeared. He is 'Mark's' nephew and resembles his uncle very much. On his arrival 'Mark' took occasion to blaspheme for a few minutes, that his relative might realize that men are not all alike. He cursed the journey, the fatigues and annoyances, winding up by acknowledging that if everything had been made and arranged by the Almighty for the occasion, it could not have been better or more comfortable, but he 'was not travelling for pleasure,' etc. [00:56]

We take the Northern Pacific line from Tacoma to Kalama. This line began service January 5, 1874 and included runs between Portland and Kalama by steamboat on the Willamette and Columbia Rivers.

On October 9 of 1884 - Northern Pacific puts the world's second largest ferry, the 338-ft. Steamboat Kalama (later renamed Tacoma), into service. [01:46]The ferry transport trains across the Columbia first from Hunters and later from Goble to Kalama, Washington from 1884 until 1908.The trains are loaded in their entirety (engine and cars) onto the three-track ferry and taken across the river. 02:17] Sometime between 1891 and 1893 the Oregon slip was moved to Goble, which is where we landed. [02:36]

The steamer was brought out from New York by the American ship Tillie E. Starbuck, her manifest showing the ferry-boat to consist of 57,159 separate pieces. She was put together at Portland and launched May 17th by Smith Brothers & Watson, and was handled on her trial trip by Capt. E.W. Spenser. She was first christened the Kalama but is now known as the Tacoma. Capt. George Gore was placed in command of the steamer, with Charles Gore, chief engineer, and that they are both still holding those positions is a high compliment to their ability as steamboatmen. Other members of the crew for several years past and present time are William Simpson and A.F. Hedges, pilots; John Larsen and Thomas Poppington, mates; William Lewis, Elias Vickers, Joseph Collyer and Michael O'Neill, engineers. The Tacoma's dimensions are: length, three hundred and thirty-eight feet; beam, forty-two feet; depth, eleven feet seven inches; engines, thirty-six by one hundred and eight inches."  [04:22]

The history of the area begins with the selection of Kalama, Washington, as the beginning point for the construction of the Pacific Division of the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1870. At least by 1879, there was a landing on the Oregon side of the Columbia River across from Kalama known as Enterprise Landing. However the Northern Pacific Railroad was chartered to construct transcontinental railroad and telegraph lines between Lake Superior and Puget Sound and completing the connection required a Portland to Kalama route. In 1877, Oregon Senator John Mitchell sponsored legislation calling for the Northern Pacific to forfeit 7,000,000 acres of land grants unless they completed a line to Kalama "as far as practicable along the Oregon side of the Columbia River". The bill didn't pass congress, but on September 8, 1883, the Last spike was driven at Gold Creek, Montana to close the gap in the Rocky Mountain Division section of the Northern Pacific Railroad. A special train celebrating the opening of the transcontinental line arrived in Tacoma on September 13, 1883, which had traveled over the Portland-Hunters line. The Train Ferry Tacoma would go in service the following year. [06:20]

The Goble area was most likely a stop for the Lewis and Clark Expedition. First settled by Daniel B. Goble in 1853. He took up a donation land claim and later sold it to George S. Foster, who laid out a town and named it after Goble. Goble had a post office from 1894 to 1960. The history of the area is complicated because there are at five or six different community names applied to at least three locations in close proximity to each other all dating to about the same era. These names include: Hunters, Reuben, Goble, Mooreville, Red Town, Enterprise aka Enterprise Landing, and arguably Beaver Homes. [07:28] Hunters, being the railroad ferry site, was also the site of the first post office in the area called "Hunters", which was established May 29, 1888. Hunters was a location about two miles south of present-day Goble, and was soon abandoned by the Northern Pacific Railroad in favor of a new ferry slip at Goble. There is no good record of when the move was made, but the Hunters post office was closed to Reuben in October 1893, and Goble was platted in 1891.[08:19]

1908 - The Northern Pacific extended its Tacoma-Kalama mainline south to Vancouver in order to make use of the Spokane, Portland & Seattle's Vancouver-Portland line, and discontinues the newly obsolete ferry service between Kalama and Goble. Northern Pacific also changes the operation of its premier passenger train, the North Coast Limited. Rather than continuing to run the train in a single section from the Twin cities to Tacoma and then on to Portland, the consist is now broken into two sections at Pasco, one running over Stampede Pass on the Northern Pacific mainline and terminating in Seattle, the other running along the Columbia River via the Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railway to terminate in Portland. Similarly, the Portland-bound portion of Great Northern’s Oriental Limited is diverted from the Union Pacific-controlled Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company to the Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railway. [09:52]

Mark and I reached Portland on time, 8:22, and found the Marquam Grand packed with a waiting audience and the sign ' Standing Room Only' out. The lecture was a grand success. After it 'Mark's' friend, Colonel Wood, formerly of the United States army, gave a supper at the Portland Club, where about two dozen of the leading men were entertained for two hours with 'Mark's' story-telling. They will remember that evening as long as they live. There is surely but one 'Mark Twain.'

Saturday, August 10th, smoke, smoke, smoke. It was not easy to tear ourselves away from Portland so early. The Oregonian contains one of the best notices that 'Mark' has had. He is pleased with it, and is very jolly to-day. We left for Olympia at eleven o'clock, via Northern Pacific Railroad. Somehow 'Mark' seems to grow greater from day to day. Each time it seemed as though his entertainment had reached perfection, but last night surpassed all.

A gentleman on the train, a physician from Portland, said that no man ever left a better impression on a Portland audience; that 'Mark Twain" was the theme on the streets and in all business places. A young reporter for The Oregonian met 'Mark' as he was boarding the train for Olympia, and had probably five minutes' talk with him. He wrote a two-column interview which ' Mark" declared was the most accurate and the best that had ever been reported of him." On the train a bevy of young ladies ventured to introduce themselves to him, and he entertained them all the way to Olympia, where a delegation of leading citizens met us, headed by John Miller Murphy, editor of the oldest paper in Washington. [01:54]

They met us outside the city, in order that we might enjoy a ride on a new trolley car through the town. As 'Mark' stepped from the train, Mr. Miller said:'"Mr. Twain, as chairman of the reception committee, allow me to welcome you to the capital of the youngest and most picturesque State in the Union. I am sorry the smoke is so dense that you cannot see our mountains and our forests, which are now on fire.' "'Mark' said; 'I regret to see—I mean to learn (I can't see, of course, for the smoke) that your magnificent forests are being destroyed by fire. As for the smoke, I do not so much mind. I am accustomed to that. I am a perpetual smoker myself.' [03:11]

"Monday, August 12th: " I had trouble in settling at the Opera House; the manager is a scamp. I expected trouble, and I had it."The Tacoma Press Club gave 'Mark' a reception in their rooms after the lecture, which proved to be a very bright affair. ' Mark' is finding out that he has found his friends by the loss of his fortune. People are constantly meeting him on the street, at halls, and in hotels, and telling him of the happiness he has brought them—old and young alike. He seems as fresh to the rising generation as he is dear to older friends. Here we met Lieutenant-Commander Wadhams, who is executive officer of the Mohican, now in Seattle harbor. He has invited us all on board the man-of-war to dine to-morrow, and we have all accepted. [04:25]

"' Mark' had a great audience in Seattle the next evening. The sign 'Standing Room Only' was out again. He was hoarse, but the hoarseness seemed to augment the volume of his voice. After the lecture he met many of his friends and admirers at the Rainier Club. Surely he is finding out that his misfortunes are his blessings. He has been the means of more real pleasure to his readers and hearers than he ever could have imagined had not this opportunity presented itself. [05:11]

"Wednesday, August 14th: "Mark's' cold is getting worse. He worried and fretted all day; two swearing fits under his breath, with a short interval between them, they lasted from our arrival in town until he went to sleep after midnight. They spent the night at the Fairhaven Hotel, the theater was in the next town of Whatcom or New Whatcom. These towns would all later merge into the town of Bellingham. The Lighthouse Theater was on the fourth floor of a building with no fire escapes. It was with great difficulty that he got through the lecture. The crowd, which kept stringing in at long intervals until half-past nine, made him so nervous that he left the stage for a time. I thought he was ill, and rushed back of the scenes, only to meet him in a white rage. He looked daggers at me, and remarked:" * You'll never play a trick like this on me again. Look at that audience. It isn't half in yet.'" I explained that many of the people came from long distances, and that the cars ran only every half hour, the entire country on fire causing delays, and that was why the last installment came so late. He cooled down and went at it again.

He captured the crowd. He had a good time and an encore, and was obliged to give an additional story. The agent had failed to provide refreshments for Mark after the performance. All public places were closed and no lights burning even in the Fairhaven Hotel. So a few members of the Cascade Club took him back to their club rooms. These had originally been rather opulent until the crash of 1893 when the club could no longer afford servants. Mark asked for a hot whiskey so one of the club members dashed down two flights of stairs, ran down the street a persuaded a restaurant owner to make a fire and heat up some water. The water was probably tepid by the time it arrived but Mark claimed it was hot enough and even insisted on a second drink “no doubt to make us feel better” recorded a member who chronicled the event. [07:59]

"Thursday, August 15th: Mark's' throat is in a very bad condition. It was a great effort to make himself heard. He is a thoroughbred—a great man, with wonderful will power, or he would have succumbed. We had a fine audience, a crowded house, very English, and I think 'Mark' liked it. According to one critic the crowd was “convulsed at times to the point of incoherence. Everything here is English and Canadian. There is a rumor afloat that the country about us is beautiful, but we can't see it, for there is smoke, smoke everywhere, and no relief. My eyes are sore from it. Mark remarked that the smoke was so thick that “you can't see a cathedral at 800 yards”. We are told that the Warrimoo will not sail until Wednesday, so I have arranged for the Victoria lecture Tuesday.

"Friday, August I6th: Our tour across the continent is virtually finished, and I feel the reaction. 'Othello's occupation gone.' This morning 'Mark' had a doctor, who says he is not seriously ill. Mrs. Clemens is curing him. The more I see of this lady the greater and more wonderful she appears to be. There are few women who could manage and absolutely rule such a nature as 'Mark's.' She knows the gentle and smooth way over every obstruction he meets, and makes everything lovely. This has indeed been the most delightful tour I have ever made with any party, and I wish to record it as one of the most enjoyable of all my managerial experiences. I hardly ever expect another. Mark' has written in a presentation copy of 'Roughing It':"'Here ends one of the smoothest and pleasantest trips across the continent that any group of five has ever made.'"'Mark' is better this evening, so we shall surely have a good lecture in Victoria.

Saturday, August 17th, Vancouver. We are all waiting for the news as to when the Warrimoo will be off the dry dock and ready to sail. Mark' is getting better. I have booked Victoria for Tuesday, the 20th.'Mark' has lain in bed all day, as usual, spending much time writing. Reporters have been anxious to meet and interview him, and I urged it. He finally said: 'If they'll excuse my bed, show them up.' A quartet of bright young English journalists came up. They all had a good time, and made much of the last interview with 'Mark Twain ' in America, as it was.' Mark' was in excellent spirits.

His throat is better. [01:01]

Monday, August 19th. We are at Vancouver still, and the smoke is as firmly fixed as we are in the town. It is bad. 'Mark' has not been very'cheerful to-day. He doesn't get his voice back. He and I took a walk about the streets, and he seemed discouraged, I think on account of Mrs. Clemens's dread of the long voyage, and because of the unfavorable stories we have heard of the Warrimoo. We leave Vancouver, and hosts of new friends, for Victoria, B.C., and then we part. That will not be easy, for we are all very happy. It makes my heart ache to see 'Mark' so downhearted after such continued success as he has had. [02:00]

On August 20th the boat for Victoria arrived half an hour late. We all hurried to get on board, only to be told by the captain that he had one hundred and eighty tons of freight to discharge, and that it would be four o'clock before we left. This lost our Victoria engagement, which I was obliged to postpone by telegraph. 'Mark ' was not in condition to relish this news, and as he stood on the wharf after the ladies had gone aboard he took occasion to tell the captain, in very plain and unpious language, his opinion of a passenger-carrying company that, for a few dollars extra, would violate their contract and obligations to the public. They were a lot of _______ somethings, and deserved the penitentiary. The captain listened without response, but got very red in the face. It seems the ladies had overheard the loud talk. Soon after 'Mark ' joined them he came to me and asked if I wouldn't see that captain and apologize for his unmanly abuse, and see if any possible restitution could be made. I did so, and the captain and 'Mark' became quite friends. [03:27] We left Vancouver on The Charmer at six o'clock, arriving in Victoria a little after midnight.

Wednesday, August 21st, Victoria, B.C.—The Driad."'Mark' has been in bed all day; he doesn't seem to get strength. He smokes constantly, and I fear too much also; still, he may stand it. Physicians say it will eventually kill him. "We had a good audience. Lord and Lady Aberdeen, who were in a box, came back on the stage after the lecture and said many very nice things of the entertainment, offering to write to friends in Australia about it, 'Mark's' voice began strong, but showed fatigue toward the last. His audience, which was one of the most appreciative he ever had, was in great sympathy with him as they realized the effort he was obliged to make, owing to his hoarseness.

"A telegram from Mr. George McL. Brown says the Warrimoo will sail at six o'clock tomorrow evening. This is the last appearance of 'Mark Twain' in America for more than a year I know, and I much fear the very last, for it doesn't seem possible that his physical strength can hold out. After the lecture to-night he expected to visit a club with Mr. Campbell, who did not come around. He and I, therefore, went out for a walk. He was tired and feeble, but did not want to go back to the hotel. He was nervous and weak, and disappointed, for he had expected to meet and entertain a lot of gentlemen. He and I are alike in one respect: we don't relish disappointment. [05:32]

Thursday, August 22d. We are in Victoria yet. The blessed'tie that binds' seems to be drawing tighter and tighter as the time for our final separation approaches. We shall never be happier in any combination, and Mrs. Clemens is the great magnet. What a noble woman she is! It is 'Mark Twain's ' wife who makes his works so great. She edits everything and brings purity, dignity, and sweetness to his writings. In 'Joan of Arc ' I see Mrs. Clemens as much as 'Mark Twain.' [06:15]

Friday, August 23d, Victoria. "'Mark' and I were out all day getting books, cigars, and tobacco. He bought three thousand Manilla cheroots, thinking that with four pounds of Durham smoking tobacco he could make the three thousand cheroots last four weeks. If perpetual smoking ever kills a man, I don't see how *Mark Twain ' can expect to escape. He and Mrs. Clemens, an old friend of 'Mark's' and his wife, now living near here, went for a drive, and were out most of the day. This is remarkable for him. I never knew him to do such a thing before. [07:03]

The Warrimoo arrived about one o'clock. We all went on board and lunched together for the last time. Mrs. Clemens is disappointed in the ship. The whole thing looks discouraging, and our hearts are almost broken with sympathy for her. She tells me she is going to brave it through, for she must do It. It is for her children. Our party got out on the deck of the Warrimoo, and Mr. W. G. Chase, a passenger, took a snapshot of our quintette. Then wife and I went ashore, and the old ship started across the Pacific Ocean with three of our most beloved friends on board. We waved to one another as long as they kept in sight. [07:54]

Before sailing 'Mark Twain' wrote a letter to the editor of the San Francisco Examiner, from which I quote: 'Now that I reflect, perhaps it is a little immodest in me to talk about my paying my debts, when by my own confession I am blandly getting ready to unload them on the whole English-speaking world. I didn't think of that—-well, no matter, so long as they are paid. Lecturing is gymnastics, chest-expander, medicine, mind healer, blues destroyer, all in one. I am twice as well as I was when I started out. I have gained nine pounds in twenty-eight days, and expect to weigh six hundred before January. I haven't had a blue day in all the twenty-eight. My wife and daughter are accumulating health and strength and flesh nearly as fast as I am. When we reach home two years hence, we think we can exhibit as freaks. 'Mark Twain.'Vancouver, B.C., August 15, 1895."

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