Submitted by scott on Sun, 11/28/2021 - 18:13

It's likely Twain traveled to Indianapolis from Paris, IL on January 1, 1872 as he attended church in Paris December 31, 1871.  The Terre Haute, Alton and St. Louis ran between Paris and Terre Haute.  There are two possible lines from Terre Haute to Indianapolis, the Terre Haute and Richmond or the Terre Haute and Indianapolis, which became the Pennsylvania line.

January 1 - Association Hall, Indianapolis, Indiana - "Roughing It"

The Cincinnati and Chicago to Kokomo, later to become the Pennsylvania;  the Peru and Indianapolis to Indianapolis, later to become the New York, Chicago and St. Louis.

January 2 - Opera House, Logansport, Indiana - "Roughing It"

Return to Kokomo and takes the  Cincinnati and Chicago to Richmond.

January 3 - Richmond, Indiana - "Roughing It"

From Richmond to Daytona was primarily aboard the Indiana Central, which later became part of the Pennsylvania Railroad.  Twain's trip may have involved the Cincinnati, Eaton and Richmond departing Richmond, and the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton entering Dayton.

Sam stayed at the Beckel House, Room 169.

January 4 - Music Hall, Dayton, Ohio - "Roughing It"

The 1870 kml files indicate two possible routes between Dayton and Columbus.  The southern route begins with the Dayton, Xenia and Belpre to Xenia, then the Columbus and Xenia to Columbus.  The northern route begins with the Sandusky, Dayton and Cincinnati to Springfield, the Springfield and Columbus to London and the Columbus and Xenia to Columbus.

January 5 - Opera House, Columbus, Ohio - "Roughing It"

Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati to Galion, then the Bellefontaine Line to Crestline. "Failing to make connection at Crestline {forty miles west of Wooster} he hired an engine to bring him to Wooster."  SLC to OLC, 7 Jan 1872, Wooster, Ohio (UCCL 00708), n. 3.   The railway line to Wooster would have been the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad

January 6 - Arcadome Hall, Wooster, Ohio - "Roughing It"

Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago

January 8 - Concert Hall, Salem, Ohio - "Roughing It"

Sam, in a letter to Olivia makes an observation about his midwestern audiences:  "Well, slowly this lecturing penance drags toward the end. Heaven knows I shall be glad when I get far away from these country communities of wooden-heads. Whenever I want to go w away from New England again, lecturing, please show these letters to me & bring me to my senses. How I do chafe & sweat when I count up the Dutch audiences I have yet to play the fool before."

This seems to be reflected in a review from the Salem newspaper:  "The Salem Republican judged that Clemens’s 8 January lecture “as a whole” did not meet expectations. It praised “some passages of fine description and word painting,” but complained that “no one could tell when he told the truth or when he was indulging in fiction, and when he was half through, his hearers had lost confidence in his sayings, and did not expect to be told anything on which they could rely” (10 Jan 72, transcript in CU-MARK courtesy of William Baker)." SLC to OLC, 8 Jan 1872, Salem, Ohio (UCCL 00711), n. 1. 

To Steubenville from Salem:  Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago to Alliance;  Cleveland and Pittsburgh to the Ohio River;  there are then several sections of a no-name line to Steubenville that the USGS quads identify as the Pennsylvania RR.

January 9 - Gray and Garrett's Hall, Steubenville, Ohio - "Roughing It"

In a letter to Olivia, Sam bemoans the loss of riverboat business to the railroad.:  "These windows overlook the Ohio—once alive with [steamboats ] & crowded with all manner of traffic; but now a deserted stream, victim of the railroads. Where be the pilots. They were starchy boys, in my time, & greatly envied by the youth of the West. The same with the Mississippi pilots—though the Mobile & Ohio [Railroad ] had already walked suddenly off with the passenger business in my day, & so it was the beginning of the end."

Notes from the Mark Twain Project provide some detail on this phenomena:   Competition between railroads and steamboats on the Ohio was first joined in 1854; by 1857, with the advent of daily passenger trains between Cincinnati and St. Louis, the railroads had won. During the same period the Mobile and Ohio Railroad and the New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern Railroad were extended northward paralleling the Mississippi. Continuous rail service between Cincinnati and New Orleans was in place by 1859 and was expected to “take a large passenger business from the steamers,” according to a Cincinnati report on commerce. With the interruption caused by the war, however, “rail service improved so slowly on this route that twenty years were to pass before the position of steamboats on the Mississippi below Cairo was seriously threatened” (Hunter, 485–86). Clemens dealt briefly with the same events in chapter 15 of Life on the Mississippi:

First, the new railroad stretching up through Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky, to Northern railway centers, began to divert the passenger travel from the steamers; next the war came and almost entirely annihilated the steamboating industry during several years ...; and finally, the railroads intruding everywhere, there was little for steamers to do, when the war was over, but carry freights; so straightway some genius from the Atlantic coast introduced the plan of towing a dozen steamer cargoes down to New Orleans at the tail of a vulgar little tug-boat; and behold, in the twinkling of an eye, as it were, the association and the noble science of piloting were things of the dead and pathetic past! (SLC 1883, 191–92)

SLC to OLC, 10 Jan 1872, Steubenville, Ohio (UCCL 00712), n. 2. 

From Steubenville to Wheeling, the 1870 kml file show a single no-name line.  The USGS Quads, of a later date, show two competing lines, the Wheeling and Lake Erie, Ohio River Division, and the Pennsylvania, Cleveland and Pittsburg Division.

January 10 - Washington Hall, Wheeling, West Virginia - "Roughing It"

From Wheeling to Pittsburgh, depending upon which side of the Ohio River Twain was on, he could have taken what would become the Pennsylvania Railroad to Steubenville and crossed the Ohio River on...

"Steubenville's first bridge to cross the Ohio River was built between 1857 and 1865. The bridge connected the S&I (Steubenville and Indiana Railroad) and P&S (Pittsburgh and Steubenville Railroad). The new railroad line was operated by the Western Transportation Company as the Pittsburgh, Columbus, and Cincinnati Railroad until 1868, when multiple companies joined together as the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway. All that remains of the original bridge is one pier which now braces the most current railroad bridge, viewable from State Route 7.    Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge, Steubenville

More likely, he boarded what would become the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad,  that traveled to Pittsburgh.

January 11 - Mercantile Library Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania - "Roughing It"

The Allegheny Valley Railroad ran between Pittsburgh and Kittanning.  Twain was not impress with the town:  “Livy darling, this is a filthy, stupid, hateful Dutch village, like all Pennsylvania—& I have got to lecture to these leatherheads tonight, but shall leave for Pittsburgh at 3 in the morning, & spend Sunday in that black but delightful town”

No reviews of Clemens’s performance in Kittanning have been found. With no lecture scheduled on the weekend, Clemens planned to make the thirty-five-mile rail journey back to Pittsburgh early on Saturday morning, 13 January. His favorable impression of Pittsburgh dated from his successful lectures there in November 1868 and November 1869 (L2, 282–83, 298; L3, 382 n. 2).

SLC to OLC, 12 Jan 1872, Kittanning, Pa. (UCCL 00715), n. 1. 

January 12 - Kittanning, Pennsylvania - "Roughing It"

Twain returned to and spent the weekend in Pittsburgh.  He took the train to Lock Haven on the 16th. the Pennsylvania Railroad.  The 1870 kml files show the Pennsylvania RR going to Export, PA and then a line to Blairsville that does not correspond to the USGS maps.  My guess is that he took a northern route through Freeport and then southeast past Blairsville and on to Lock Haven.

January 16 - Opera House, Lock Haven, Pennsylvania - "Roughing It"

From Lock Haven to Milton, the 1870 kml files have a no-name line running to Nisbet and then the Philadelphia and Erie to Milton.  The USGS quads indicate that the no-name line would become part fo the Pennsylvania RR.

January 17 - Milton, Pennsylvania - "Roughing It"

The Pennsylvania RR to Rockville and the Philadelphia and Erie for most of the ride.

January 18 - Court House, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania - "Roughing It"

Twain traveled to Lancaster for the January 19th lecture and returned to Harrisburg for the weekend.  The Pennsylvania RR has two routes between these cities with junctions at Royalton and Dillerville.  The northern route goes through Mount Joy and Elizabethtown, the southern route follows the Susquehanna River then turns east at Columbia.

January 19 - Fulton Opera House, Lancaster, Pennsylvania - "Roughing It"

The Cumberland Valley Railroad ran from Harrisburg through Mount Holly Springs, where Twain possible took local transportation to Carlisle or possibly the Gettysburg and Harrisburg Railroad.  The USGS map identifies the Cumberland Valley Railroad as the Philadelphia, Harrisburg and Pittsburgh Branch of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad.

January 22 - Old Methodist Church, Carlisle, Pennsylvania - "Roughing It"

Return to Harrisburg then south on the Philadelphia and Erie to Lineboro.  From the Maryland border to Baltimore ran the Northern Central.

January 23 - Maryland Institute, Baltimore, Maryland - "Roughing It"

From Baltimore to New York City possibly involved five different railroads:  Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore;  Philadelphia and Reading;  Philadelphia and Trenton;  Camden and Amboy; and, the New Jersey.

January 24 - Steinway Hall, New York, New York - "Roughing It"

Twain returned to Hartford for the weekend:  New York and New Haven Railroad and the New Haven, Hartford and Springfield Railroad.  The trip to Scranton, Pennsylvania would entail a return to New York City then aboard the New Jersey Central and the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western to Scranton.

January 29 - Klein's Opera House, Scranton, Pennsylvania - "Roughing It"

Twain would have returned to Jersey City along the same route he took to get to Scranton.  After the lecture Sam took the ferry back to New York and spent the night at the St. Nicholas.

January 30 - The Tabernacle, Jersey City, New Jersey - "Roughing It"

January 31 Wednesday – Sam again took a ferry and lectured in Opera House, Paterson, New Jersey  “Roughing It” [MTPO]. Sam probably spent the night at Paterson’s Franklin House Hotel [MTL 5: 39].

January 31 - Opera House, Paterson, New Jersey - "Roughing It"

From New York City, Twain would have taken the Hudson River Railroad to Troy.  The final miles of the trip may have involved the Troy and Greenbush and the Hudson and Boston Railroads.

February 1 - Rand's Hall, Troy, New York - "Roughing It"

Twain returned to Hartford.

February 21 - Opera House, Danbury, Connecticut - "Roughing It"

Lorch writes:  "While it turned out to be quite rewarding financially, in other ways it was probably the most troublesome and least satisfying of all his tours, filled with worries about contriving new lectures and being satisfied with few of them.  To Mrs. Fairbanks he confided 'I think I built and delivered 6 different lectures during the season-and as I lectured 6 nights in the week and never used notes, you may fancy what a fatiguing, sleepy crusade it was.'" (pg 121)