The Logansport, Peoria & Burlington Railroad consisted of two companies: lines east of Peoria (east of the Illinois River) and lines west of Peoria. Both of these lines were constructed by the Peoria & Oquawka Railroad In 1860, the LP&B operated 171 miles of line in Illinois, about the distance between Effner, IL and East Burlington, IL (on the Mississippi River) via Peoria.
The Logansport, Peoria & Burlington Railroad (lines east) was incorporated on September 12, 1854, by change of name from the Logansport & Pacific Railway, incorporated on May 7, 1853. On February 21, 1861, the Logansport, Peoria & Burlington Railroad purchased the eastern division (lines east of the Illinois River) of the Peoria & Oquawka Railroad. This company became part of the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis (PRR) giving the PRR access to Peoria.