At the beginning of the 17th century, the Aix people and the medical world had begun to become aware of the value of the hot springs of Aix, through the writings of the dauphinois physician Jean Baptiste Cabias, who was followed in this area by other renowned doctors. Indeed, since ancient times the exploitation of sources of hot water had never been completely forgotten. Bathing took place in Aix in the Middle Ages and until the end of the 18th century, in the only existing Roman pool, outdoors, or at home where the spa water was brought by hand. The King of France Henry IV highly appreciated his Aix bath, according to Jean Baptiste Cabias. In 1737, to protect the hot springwater seepage from the stream running through the city, a major project was scheduled by the General Commissariat. This changed the urban distribution of the town centre, since it was necessary to dig a new bed for the Moulins stream, outside the walls. They also had to rebuild the four mills of the Marquis of Aix, until then in the town centre, along the new channel (currently Montée des moulins, Hill of Mills).
Mark Twain was pleased with the relief the baths brought for the pain in his arm.