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From Tourist's Guide du Touriste, Quebec & Ottawa via Q. M. O. & O. 1879:  Quebec to Ottawa

Montreal, founded by de Maisonneuve in 1642, the prettiest, the richest, the most elegant, the most populous, the largest, the most commercial and flourishing city of British North America, is situated at the head of sea navigation, and at the foot of the great chain of rivers, lakes and canals navigation, which extends westward to Chicago, 1400 miles, embracing an almost unequalled extent of inland water communication. It occupies one of the most commanding positions in America, and stands on a large, fertile and beautiful island of the same name, 30 miles in length hy 10 miles of extreme breadth, formed by the confluence of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers, and on the north bank of the latter, thus.situated near the junction of two very important rivers, with a free communication seawards. Montreal possesses all the advantages of both an inland city and sea port accessible to steamships and other vessels of over 4000 tons burthen. Its position with reference to Quebec, Ontario, New-York, Boston, Portland, Albany, and the lower Provinces, makes it, by means of its extensive water and railway communication, the great center of attraction and commercial emporium of the Dominion of Canada. The city is the chief seat of manufacturing operations of the Dominion : and it has many extensive and costly establiments, the productions of which will compare favorably with those of other countries. The principal business streets are Notre-Dame, St. Paul, Commissioners, MeGill, St. James, and the main streets of St. Lawrence, Quebec, St. Anns, St, Joseph and St. Antoine suburbs. The city and suburbs are well lighted with gas, and many of the principal streets paved with stone.

From whichever side approached, Montreal and its vacinity, with its numerous beautiful villas, orchards, and delightful drives, its grand and stately edifices, and so many elegant public and other buildings of cut stone, adorned with glittering roofs and domes, tall spires and lofty towers, present to the view of the beholder a vast, picturesque, and grand panorama.

Among the many handsome public buildings of which Montreal can boast, is the Canadian St. Peter's now being erected in the form of a cross, 300 feet in length from the grand entrance to the back of the nave, while its breadth —or length of tie transept—is 225. The length of the building will be further increased by a portice 30 feet in width. ‘The average height of the walls will he 30 feet, Those to support the roof of the nave will be 42 feet higher, with an additional elevation of 66 feet under the grand dome. Thus the extreme height of the masonry from the floor will be 138 feet. ‘The roof, which is to be of galvanized iron, will not be modelled after that of St, Peter's, for though at Rome the climate admits of a flat roof, it is‘ otherwise in Canada.

The large dome will be the handsomest part of the Cathedral, and will be erected over the transept, supported on four gigantic pillars of oblong form, and 36 feet in thickness. As the dome will be 70 feet in diameter at its commencement, and its summit 210 feet from the spectators on the floor of the Church, some idea may be had of its vast proportions. It will be an exact copy on a smaller scale of the mighty dome of St. Peter's, and, when complete will be 250 feet in height—46 feet higher than the towers of the French Church in the Place d’Armes. On the outside, the foot of the dome will be strengthened by 16 pair of corinthian pillars, twenty-five feet in height, and surmonted by pilasters. ‘The space between the former is to be filled by large windows richly ornamented. Above the pillars, the dome will curve gracefully up lo its apex, from which a grand lantern will arise, surrounded on a smaller scale’ by ornamented pillars. Above this again will be placed a huge gilt ball, and pointing towards the heavens from its summit will be seen a glittering cross 13 feet long.

An interior view of the Church, with its wall ornamented with frescoes, statuary aud paintings from the Italian School of art, seen here and there between the vista of lofty pillars, will be very striking. Under the immense dome will stand the high altar, and leading away from around it will be seen rows of arched pillars, dividing the aisles and supporting the roof, Besides the grand altar, there are to be twenty chapels in the cathedral, and in each of the four immense pillars which support the dome, there will be room for three commodious altars. ‘The foot of each pillar is to form a vault for the reception of the bodies of bishops, etc, Light will be admitted through the five domes, and will be increased by six large lanterned casements, and a number of small windows. There will be no colonnade, by which to approach the edifice as at St. Peter's Rome; but the grounds will be ornamented with fountains. etc.

The French Cathedral, of Notre-Dame, situated on the street of same name, facing place d’Armes square, the most splendid, and in fact superior to any other in British America. Its style of species of Gothic; it is 256 feet in length, and 134 feet in breadth. ‘The flanks rise 61 feet above the terrace, and the towers to the main front are 22 feet high. It is faced with excellent stone and roofed with copper, the principal window is 64 foot in height, and 32 broad, the interior contains 1244 pews, equal to the accommodation of at least 12,000 persons. ‘The building comprises seven chapels, all visible from the front entrance. The high altar bears a resemblance to that of St. Peters at Rome, the pulpit to that of the Cathedral of Strasburg. One of the front tower contains nine bells, which chime are most melodious, and the other tower a large bell, called “Bourdon St. Jean-Bapliste ” weighing 29,400 lbs. Admission may be gained to the south west tower every day during the summer, and from the summit, the spectator has a delightful and extensive view of the city, the river and surrounding country.

Church ‘of the Gesu has the most beautiful interior of church in America, its style of architecture is round Roman Arch, It is 194 feet long and 96 wide, but at the transept, the tranversal nave is 144 feet long, the height of the two naves is 75 feet. The form of the Church is a perfect cross, four large columns support the ceiling, in the center of the cross, against which are statues of the four evangelist bearing lustres. St. Mark with a lion, St. Mathew with an ox, St. Luke with a child and St, John with an eagle, The interior is frescoed in the most elaborate manner, over the altar is the crucifixion, in the center is a scene from the Apocalypse, and on the ceiling of the sanctuary, the new born Saviour adorned by the shepherds.

Christ Church cathedral (episcopal) situated west St. Catherine street, is unquestionably the most beautiful specimen of ecclesical architecture in Canada, was opened for divine service on Sunday, November 27th 1860, It is of a cruciform plan, and consists of a nave and aisles 112 feet long and 70 wide; transepts 100 feet across the tower, and 25 feet wide, tower 20 feet square, and choir 46 feet long and 28 feet wide. The spire, which is entirely of stone, rises to a height of 224, internally, The nave is 67 feet high, aud has an open roof, the timbers of which are worked and carved, two ranges of column: with carved capitals and arches separate the nave from the aisles. The altar window is of the most elegant description; over the arches is carved, and the letters illuminated, “Oh worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness, ’, The edifice is built of Montreal lime stone, with dressings of stone imported’ expressly from Caen in Normandy. His Royal High- ness the Prince of Wales, to commemorate his visit to the cathedral, in 1860, made the present of a beautiful Bible, Qn the eastern side of the Cathedral grounds stand the “ Fulford Memorial,” erected in memory of the late Metropolitan, and on the other side is the Bishop's palace, of elegant structure, with dressings similar to that of the Cathedral,

St. Patrick’s Church stands on an elevated side, on Lagauchetiere street, is one of the most striking objects visible on approaching the city; its architecture is of the old Gothic style; its length is 240 feet, the breadth 490, and the height of spire is 225 feet. The interior of the building is most elaborately decorated, and the altar presents a gorgeous appearance. ‘Tho Church will seat about 5,000 persons.

Erskine Church (Presbyterian), at the corner of Peel street, is 136 feet by 79 feet, from the ground to the roof 82 feet, its tower surmonted by a spire of the height of 196 is 18 feet 6 inches square, ‘The main entrance is 13 feet wide by 32 high, this building will accommodute about 1,300 persons.

‘There is great number of other Churches which deserve to be seen; as St, James Church (Roman Catholic) on St. Denis street, near Ste. Catherine street ; this church has the highest spire in the Dominion, its height being 286 feet.

St. Peter Church (Roman Catholic) situated corner of Visitation and Dorchester street, Ste. Catherine street Baptist Church, St. Andrew's Church (Presbyterian) at the corner of Belmont and Palace street. The Church of St. James the Apostle, situated at the corner of St, Catherine and Mackay street, ‘St, George's Church (Episcopal) at the corner of St. Francois de Salles and St. Janvier street.

‘The bank of Montreal is the finest public building in the City, and is not excelled by any banking institution in America, It is built in the Corinthian style of Architecture, and has a frontage on St. James street of over 100 feet. The entrance is by a portice supported by immense columns of cut stone. ‘These are surmounted by a pediment. The sculpture on the pediment, fifty-two feet long, and weighs over twenty-five tons, there being, twenty different pieces. ‘The figures are colossal, eight feet in height for a human figure and are placed at an elevation of fifty feet from the ground, ‘The arms of the bank, with the motto “Concordia Salus” forms the centre of the group, On each side, vis-a-vis, is seated a North American Indian, . One of these is a perfect illustration of the poets conception: When wild in woods the noble savage ran.” The other has made some progress, and points his finger to the Fruits of civilization beside him, by way of enforcing the argument he is maintaining with his swarthy brother, The other two figures, are a settler and sailor on either side, the former with a calumet, or pipe of peace in his hand, reclining upon logs, and surrounded by the implements and emblems of industry the spade, the plough, the locomotive engine ; literature and music putting in a modest appearance, in the distance, in the shape of a book and a lyre. ‘The settler is the very type of a backwoods man, a stalwart frame, rough and ready; and the sailor, on the other side, is not less effective as a specimen of the British tar. He is pulling at a rope, and is appropriately encompassed by the emblems of commerce. ‘The whole sculpture is cut in Bismy stone,-and its light hue brings it-into fine-relief, when placed, against the dark tinge of the Montreal stone, ‘The work was executed by Mr, John Steel, R..S. A., Her Majesty's sculptor in Scotland. Taking our stand on the steps of this bank, we’ have before-us the square known. as ‘Place d’Armes," a market Place and Drill Ground, now a. beautiful, though small, public garden, with a fountain in the centre. On either side of the square, are buildings, which, for solidity and architectural beauty, are unsurpassed in Canada. These buildings are chiefly devoted to banking and insurance offices. That which immediately adjoins the Bank of Montreal is known as the City Bank. It is a plain but substantial stone build- ing of the Doric order. On the left hand side of Place d’Armes is the Jacques-Cartier Bank, a beautiful building well executed in the Modern French Renaissance style. On the opposite side of the square stands the Ontario Bank. This building is in the pure Italian style of architecture ; next in order, is the building oc-cupied by La Banque Nationale,” and forming the corner St. James street, and the square the handsome edifice of the Liverpool, London & Globe Insurance Co.

City Hall

The frontage of this fine In building has nearly 230 feet in length, and {40 feet in height in the central part of the ‘building. It has a massive square tower in the center and two other towers at both end. The building is of cut stone, two storeys, a basement and’ a mansard roof. ‘The basement, occupied by the Recorders Court, has about twelve to fourteen feet in height and is of large blocs of cut stones. The frontage has.a magnificent appearance. The interior is ornamented with galeries and light is given by sky light. ‘This building is certainly one of the finest in Montreal.

Montreal Young Men's Christian Association building, is situated corner Craig and Radegonde streets, It is one of the finest structures in the city. The association is the oldest in America, and is managed by an efficient staff of officers. The Rooms are open to strangers and every information will be afforded by the secretary and Committees as to employment, suitable Boarding Houses, services in Churches, mission and sunday schools, etc. Meeting every tuesday

The New Post Office has a frontage on St. James st. of 120 ft and on St. Francois-Xavier street of 92 feet.” It is built wholly of, Montreal Grey stone, The facade on St. James street has an imposing appearance, the ground story being in the Doric style, and the second and third, having full curved Corinthian columns of rich design. The facade on St.Francois-Navier street, is in keeping with St. James Street, having Corinthian pilasters.’ Roof and towers are in French style, ‘The center tower terminates above the mansard roof, with a massive cornice and cresting.

‘The Molson’s Bank is built entirely of Ohio sandstone. The stylé is that known as Italian, and is highly ornamented. On the two upper storeys on the front on St. James street, are rich- “carved wreaths of flowers, fruits, etc. The main entrance on the same street, is through a portico, supported by highly polished columns of scotch granite, Similar columns of smaller dimensions are placed above these, and extend to the third storey. | The front is surmounted by a richly carved shield, bearing the arms of the Molson family, and supported by two female figures, the whole being executed in sandstone.

‘The Merchants Bank corner of St. James and St. Peter streets, is also built, of Ohio sandstone, with granite columns on the front and is much larger than the Mol- son’s Bank:

‘The Court House, built after the Grecian style of Architecture modified to suit the requirements of the Courts of Law, and the vicissitudes of the climat, and, although divested of some of the elegant ornamentation belonging to this beautiful style, is yet, in its imprestending and massive grandeur, second to few buildings in the City The most striking feature is its large Ionic portico, and the bold projection of the pediment, which gives the central portion of the principal front a very noble appearance. The total length of the building is 300 feet ; width 125 feet, height 76 feet. It is built entirely of Montreal stone.

The Bonsecours Market, a magnificent pile of cut stone buildings in the ‘Grecian Doric. style of Architecture, erected at the cost of about $200,000.00, and equal, if not superior, to any building of the kind in America.

The convent of La Congregation de Notre-Dame was founded of the 29th June, 1673, by Marguerite Bourgeois. In 1754 it was destroyed” by fire and was not rebuilt till 1771 when its re- erection was resumed, and on 30th June, 1773, it was completed, The Mont St. Mary convent is a fine building ornamented with massive stone pillars, ‘The entrance to the building is from Guy street. The Villa Maria convent, situated on the declivity of the mountain, one of the prettiest, site around the city, is the largest and most renowned female institution in Canada, and occupies immense buildings, the cost of which is over $500,000.

Grey Nunnery, is one of the oldest religious establishments in Montreal. By permisaion of the Bishop of Quebec and under special letters patent granted by Louis XIV in 1692, Mr. Charron, a native of Normandy, and others, founded and endowed a general hospital. ‘The gentlemen of the Seminary encouraged the work by making extensive grants of land, among which was the ground on Foundling street on which the old hospital formerly stood, Under the management of Mr. Charron, the institution made rapid progress, but after his death, his successor by his bad management, reduced the brotherhood to two or three in number, and the hospital was deeply in debt. The whole estate was, therefore handed over to the Seminary who committed it to the care of a society of ladies under the superintendance of Madame Youville, widow at the age of 28 years, of a Canadian gentleman, M. Francois de Youville. Although possessed of dignity of person, an accomplished taste, and a competent fortune, she retired from the world and devoted herself to acts of charity and religious duties, Having been joined by some other ladies, they formed a society in 1737 to unite in works of charity and to live by themselves. They now bound themselves by vows, as religious recluses, these ladies accepted the charge of the hospital in 1747. ‘The debts incurred by the previous body wore liquidated by Madame Youville, from her own private funds and she was accordingly authorized to establish the community, by letters patent, dated 3rd June 1753, ‘The Nunnery has since been largely increased by additional aisles.

The Hotel Dieu, the first of the religious houses formed in Montreal, having been commenced within two years after the first occupation of the city, was founded in 1644, by Madame de Bouillon, for the reception of the sick and diseased poor of both sexes, The first building was situated on St Paul street, ‘The increasing demands for aid, rendered it necessary that more extensive premises should be obtained, added to which was the fact that the neighbourhood was so thickly built up, that it became necessary to remove the hospital to. more open locality. To meet this, the present premises were erected. This is the most extensive religious edifice in America, It is situated in a large open field, at the head of St. Famille street, and contains the Church, convent and hospital, the whole surrounded by a massive stone wall of one mile and a half cir- cumference, An average of over 2000 sick persons aré annually admitted.

‘The seminary of St. Sulpice was founded about the year 1657, by the Abbe Quelus, who then arrived from France, commissioned by the seminary of St. Sulpice at Paris, to erect a seminary upon the plan of that at Paris

His instructions were so well fulfilled that the Establishment he formed, has existed until the present time.

The gentlemen of the seminary finding that they required greater facilities for carrying on their educational schemes, determined to erect on a large farm they possessed at the foot of the mountain, buildings of sufficient capacity, for the accommodation of students. The magnificent pile of cut stone buildings now occu-pied by them is the result, ‘This college is under the direction of a superior, who is assisted in his duties by over one hundred and twenty-five seminaries. The St. Mary’s college, which is under the direction of the society of Jesuits, was opened on the 20th September 1848, and chartered on the 10th of November 1852 The building is an imposing and substantial pile of stone, four stories in height, and’ surmounted in the centre by a large dome.

‘The McGill college, one of the ‘most important educational institute in Province de Quebec, was founded by James MoGill, Esq., a merchant of Montreal, who died on the 19th December, 1813. ‘The situated above Sherbrooke street, near the base of the Mountain, and. the structure consists of a main-building, three storyes in height, with two wings, connected therewith by corridors. These buildings and corridors, which are built: of Montreal lime stone, contain the class rooms of the Faculty of Arts, with its museum, and library, and the residences of the principal, the professor in charge of the resident undergraduates, and the secretary, The museum contains a general collection of fine specimens of Zoology ; the Carpentor collection of shells, presented by P. P. Carpenter to the University; the Carpenter collection of Mazathan shells; the Cooper collection of 2400 canadian insects ; a collection of canadian fresh water and land shells, also Botanical, Geological and Minerological specimens. ‘The philosophical apparatus is valuable and the chemical laboratory is furnished with all the necessary appliances.

At the west end of the college Building is situated the observatory, the basement. of which-is devoted entirely to the. observations on Térrestrial Magnetism. The ground story and leads. are devoted to. Meteorological--observations. At the eastern end of the college is the new building erected for the musical department,

The jail devoted to the male sex is 240 feet front, the centre of the building rising four storeys ; the wings in rear of the building are of the same height as the main edifice. The building is surrounded by a high wall, enclosing about five acres of land, ‘The female jail is also a handsome cut stone building.

There are two large Cemeteries, one the Mount-Royal, for Protestants and the other (Cimetiere de la Cote des Neiges), quite contiguous, for Roman Catholics, ‘These are passed in “the drives round the Mountain.” ‘The former will compare favourably with the famed Pere de la Chaise at Paris, and with the the cemetaries of Boston and New-York. Some very fine monuments and mausoleums will be found in it, and its natural position is one of extreme beauty. ‘The favourite Drives are round the two mountains matchiless for their beautiful scenary; ‘to Lachine, by the upper road, through the thoroughly norman looking town of St. Henri (Tanneries des Rollands,) returning by the lower road, and skirting the Lachine rapids.” To the Sault au Recollet and Priest's Island; a delightful spot for picnic, on the Ottawa or Back River, by way of the-village St. Jean Baptiste, at Sault au Recollet will be found two large and magnificent Hotels, among which may be mentioned that, under the care of M. Peloquin, and which can rivalize with those of this city, A first class convent, under the direction of the nuns of the Sacred-Heart, and a Roman Catholic church, etc.

Montreal can boast of having the most magnificent, and certainly unsurpassed Park, called the Mount Royal Park’ and situated on-the very summit of the mountain

It has also magnificent water works. The water drawn from the St. Laurent, a mile and a half above the Lachine Rapids, and conducted a distance of five miles through am open canal to a capacious basin, where it is, by powerful and costly machinery, forced up through the pumping main, two miles and three quarters in length, to reservoirs on the brow of the Mountain, capable of containing fifteen millions gallons.

‘The Harbor and Basins, into which the last linty of the great Canadian inland canals debouches, though not large, are good, convenient, and safe; the warves, extending over two mile in length, are surmounted by a massive cut-stone wall, along the height of which is a pleasant promenade and wide street, affording a fine view of the river and its shipping. There are numerous inclined planes from the walls, by which carriages ascends to” the street above; and the whole, for appearance, commodiousness, and cleanliness, is unexcelled by any port on the continent. From Point St. Charles, at the head of the harbor, to St, Lambert, on the opposite side, a distance of about 2 miles, the great “father of rivers, ” the St, Lawrence, is spanned by the Victoria Bridge, the most costly, and magnificent work of the kind ever erected,

With its two long abutments and 24 piers of solid masonry, this great tubular bridge of iron stands a monument of engineering skill and the wonder of the world.

‘Tho total length of the bridge is 9184 lineal feet, with 24 spans of 242 feet each, and one (the central tube, which is 60 feet above high water,) of 330 feet,

‘The first stone of this great masterpiece of Stevenson, was laid on tho 20th of July, 1854, and the first passenger train, passed over on the 17th December 1859.

Montreal is the Metropolitical See of the Church of England in Canada, and the seat of Roman Catholic Bishop.

It returns 3 members to the Dominion House of Commons, and 3 to the Quebec Legislature

‘Tho City is well governed corporation, composed of a Mayor and 27 Aldermen, has a fine police force, an efficient Fire brigade. and the best fire alarm telegraph system in the world.

It is the principal port of Entry in the Dominion, and is rapidly increasing in. population and extending its city limits.” On the east, west, and north of the city are numerous florishing villages joining the city though not incorporate with it. On the opposite shore of the St, Lawrence are the villages of St. Lambert, Laprairie and Langueuil

On the 28th November 1870 St. Helen’s Island, the Quebec gate barracks, the beautiful Champ-de-Mars, and all other Imperial property in Montreal, were presented-by the commander-in-chief, Sir Charles Hastings Doyle, in the name of Her Majesty, as a gift to the Dominion Government. The St. Helen's Tsland is now used, by the Montreal Corporation, as a public park;which deserves to be visited :  fare 10 cts. The head offices of the Montreal Dominion Telegraph Companies are located in St. Francois-Xavier street, while there are branch offices in the principal Hotel's and in different parts of the city. Population, including suburbs outside city boundary, is about 170,000 of all nationalities and religions,




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