Beirut was technically under Turkish rule was was effectively a British and French protectorate at the time of Twain's visit. The Quaker City arrived September 9, 1867 and departed for Jaffa six days later. Many of the passengers began overland journeys from Beirut. Twain and seven others took the long trip.
Beirut, on the other hand, would be completely unrecognizable. What was once a sleepy coastal town, barely one-up from a fishing village and even then one of the least significant ones in the Holy Land, is now a fully blown commercial experience.