Argentière is located near the head of the Valley of Chamonix approximately 7 km (4 mi) from Chamonix town. It is connected by road with Switzerland by the pass over the Col des Montets and the Col de la Forclaz to Martigny in the Rhône Valley. The village also lies on the route of the scenic Mont-Blanc Express railway which runs from Saint-Gervais-les-Bains-Le Fayet station through Chamonix, Argentière and Vallorcine before crossing the France–Switzerland border at Le Châtelard, passing through Finhaut before reaching the end of the line in Martigny.
The Argentière Glacier, which lies to the southeast of the village, is bound on its northeast side by the Aiguille du Chardonnet, the Aiguille d'Argentière and the Tour Noir, as well as on its southwest by the Aiguille Verte, Les Droites and Les Courtes. This area is generally known as the Argentière basin.