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Bædeker, 1867:

Leghorn, Ital. Livorno, French Livourne.

The vessels of the Messageries Impériales generally anchor in the outer harbour (porto nuovo), the others enter the inner harbour (porto vecchio or Mediceo). The different charges for debarcation are: from the Porto Nuovo 1 fr. for each pers. , 1 1/2 for 1 pers. with ordinary luggage (trunk, carpet-bag, hat-box), 30 c. for each additional article; from the Porto Vecchio 50 c. for each pers., 1 fr. for 1 pers, with luggage; children under 8 years free, others half-fare. Payment is made to the superintending official and not to the boatmen. — Facchino with ordinary luggage between the railway-station and the wharf or to any other part of the town 1 fr. ; for a box alone 80 c., travelling bag 40 c., hat-box 20 c. (according to tariff).

Hotels. * Hotel Victoire et Washington, on the harbour and canal; adjacent to it, on the canal, *H 6 tel de l'Aigle Noire; in both R. from 3–4 fr. upwards, D. at 5 o'clock 31/2 fr. : * Gran Bretagna with Pension Suisse on the harbour, Via Vittorio Emanuele 17, R. from 2 tr., good table d'hôte at 5 o'cl. 31/2 fr.; Hôtel du Nord on the harbour; Hötel d' Angle terre, Via Vitt. Eman. 24; Iles Britanniques, No. 33 of same street.

Cafés. *Vittoria, Piazza d'Arme; *Posta, Via Vittorio Emanuele, opp. the post-office; in the same street Borsa, Americano , Minerva. - Beer: Mayer, Via Ricasoli.

Restaurants. Fenice; Giard in et to ; Pergola, all in the Via Vittorio Emanuele ; Ghiac caio, Piazza d'Arme.

Carriages. Per drive in the town 85 c., without the town 1 fr. 70 c.; per hour 1 fr. 70 c., each additional 1/2 hr. 60 c.; to or from the station1 fr. The services of the facchini of the railway in the transference of luggage to or from the train are gratis; trifling fee for additional trouble.

As Leghorn is a free harbour passengers' luggage is superficially examined when leaving the town. A second examination may be avoided by the purchase (20 c.) of a ticket which exempts the bearer from the formality.

Consulates. Great Britain: Via Borra 17; Spain: Via Maremmana 34, where a visa for Rome is procured for 4 fr. 3 fee to commissionnaire of hotel for procuring visa 1 fr.

As late as the 16th cent. Leghorn was a mere village (in 1551 the population amounted to 749). For its present importance it is indebted to the Medicis, who attracted hither the oppressed and disaffected from every country, Roman Catholics from England, Jews and Moors from Spain and Portugal and merchants from Marseilles who sought to escape from the civil war. Montesquieu therefore termed Leghorn the “master-piece of the Medicis dynasty”. Population 96,000, among whom are 20,000 Jews. It is a free harbour and defended by fertifications.

Leghorn is a well-built, entirely modern town, containing few objects to arrest the traveller's attention, and may be sufficiently explored in a few hours. The Harbour, where extensive improve ments are now in progress, presents a busy scene. The inner harbour (porto vecchio or Mediceo) cannot accommodate vessels of great draught of water; a second (porto nuovo) was therefore constructed during the present cent. to the S. of the former and protected by a semi-circular mole. On the harbour stands the *Statue of the Grand-duke Ferdinand I. by Giovanni dell' Opera, with four Turkish slaves in bronze by Pietro Tacca.

The Via Grande or Vittorio Emanuele (formerly Via Ferdinanda) is the principal street. Proceeding from the harbour it leads to the extensive Piazza d'Arme with the cathedral, the Palazzo Comunale (or town-hall) and a small royal palace. From this point it then leads to Piazza Carlo Alberto, formerly Piazza dei due Principi, with the colossal Statues of the Grand-dukes Ferdinand III. and Leopold II., with reliefs and inscriptions recording their beneficence to the town.

Bædeker, 1870:

Leghorn , a very insignificant place in the 16th cent. (in 1551 only 749 inhab. ), is indebted for its size and importance to the Medicis , who invited hither the oppressed and discontented from all parts of the continent, such as Roman Catholics from England , Jews and Moors Spain and Portugal, and merchants from Marseilles who we. e anxious to escape from the perils of civil war. Montesquieu consequently terms Leghorn the master piece of the dynasty of the Medicis'. Leghorn is a free harbour, and protected by fortifications. The lapidly increasing population is now 99,500 souls , exclusive of a fluctuating sea-faring community of upwa.ds of 3000 .

The town contains little to detain the traveller. It is a well built, thoroughly modern place. A few hours will suffice to explore it. The Harbour is a very busy spot, and extensive new works are now in progress . The inner harbour ( Porto Vecchio , or Mediceo ) is too shallow to admit vessels of large tonnage ; the Porto Nuovo was therefore constructed during the present century, to the W . of the old harbour , and protected from the open sea by a semicircular mole . Picturesque glimpses are obtained hence of the sea with the islands Elba, Go.gona, and Capraja. An excursion by boat on the harbour will be found very pleasant in fine weather ( 1 fr . per hr. , agreement necessary). By the harbour is the * Statue of the Grand Duke Ferdinand I. , by Giov. dell' Opera , with 4 Turkish slaves in bronze by Pietro Tacca . On the pier , 500 yds. in length , rises the Lighthouse , erected by the Pisans in 1303, the platform of which affords a good survey of the town, harbour, and sea .

The town possesses well-paved streets and large and hand some squares . It is intersected by canals , and connected by a navigable canal with the Arno , the influx of which is 7 M . to the N . The Corso Vittorio Emanuele is the principal street. It leads from the harbour to the spacious Piazza d ' Arme , in which the cathedral, the town-hall, and a small royal palace are situated . It proceeds thence to the Piazza Carlo Alberto , formerly termed Piazza dei Principi , adorned with colossal Statues of the Grand Dukes Ferdinand Ill. and Leopold Il., the last but one (d . 1824 ) and the last grand -duke of Tuscany. The original inscriptions on the former monument were superseded by others in 1860 , which record the repudiation of the House of Lorraine and the annexation of Tuscany to the kingdom of Victor Emmanuel. — The water of Leghorn is bad , but this evil was greatly remedied by the construction of a conduit 5 M . in length , during the reign of Leopold II.

Walks. Pleasant grounds to the S ., outside the Porta a Mare, and along the coast by the road to Ardenza ; also in the Giardino dei Bagni (adm . 50 c., or by subscription ) in the same neighbourhood , where a band plays every evening during the bathing season (Caffè Ristoratore ).

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