Submitted by scott on

Conventions Used

– The double dagger was used in reprints of vol. I and II to designate additions or
corrections in later print runs. (Not used in Vol. III) These now may now be accessed online:

Dates: I have followed the conventions used by the University of California Press on the
volumes of
Mark Twain’s Letters, except I offer the day of the week, which in some cases is helpful. To

October 5 Thursday – Sources indicate this is a confirmed date, or a deduced date from events
or other evidence. Firm dates come before conjectured or circa dates and date ranges.

October 3? Tuesday –
The question mark indicates a conjecture of October 3. Conjecture dates are listed separately
following firm dates.

June 24–29 Saturday –
A span of dates joined by a dash indicates a less specific conjecture: the date or dates of
composition are thought to fall within this span. Day of the week is ascribed to the last date in
the span. The last date in a period is noted by its day of the week. Such entries are listed

June 24 to 29 Saturday – Not a conjecture, but an assertion that some event ran from June 24
through June 29. Such date ranges are listed separately.

May 2 and 3 Friday –
Not a conjecture, but an assertion that the event or activity occurred at least in part on both
days. Such inclusive dates are listed separately.

May 1 Friday ca. –
A conjecture of circa a date, month, year or season. Similar to May 1 st ? but with less
specificity. May also be specified as “on or before,” or “on or after.” Circa dates are listed

February –
Items for which only a month is known, or for magazine-type publications issued for a given

1863 –
Items for which a year is known, but not a month or date.

Note: Dates are arranged in order; spans of dates and single dates are sorted by the first date in
a span. Conjectured dates are usually separate from known or consensus dates. Thus there are
separate entries for May 1 Friday, and May 1? Friday ; May 17 Thursday would follow
May 12–20 Sunday. Occasionally entries are labeled “Mid-month” or “End of Month” or
“Early Spring,” etc. Confirmed dates are listed first.


Where unsigned articles have been ascribed to Sam Clemens by major researchers, I have
followed their lead but specified, “attributed.” “Sam” when shown without surname is used
throughout to mean Mark Twain/ Samuel L. Clemens; likewise “Livy” designates Olivia Louise
Clemens; “Susy” has been chosen for Olivia Susan Clemens over the spelling “Susie,” which is
seen in earlier references to her. “Jane Clemens” is used for Sam’s mother, “Pamela” or
“Pamela Moffett” for his sister, “Orion” for his brother. For certain dominant people in Sam’s
life, or dominant within certain periods, last names only are given: Howells, Twichell, Cable,
etc. Middle names are now given if known; if not, a middle initial; some middle initials are
omitted, when reference is clearly to one person, such as Hjalmar Boyesen. “Frank” is often
given for “Francis”; “Joe” for Joseph, when the person was a familiar figure in Sam’s life, such
as Joe Twichell, Joe Goodman, Frank Bliss, etc. There are exceptions, as when H.H. Rogers is
used for Henry Huttleston Rogers, etc.


MLA formatting is followed for in -text and Works Cited, with exceptions made for MT
“standard” abbreviations such as MTBus or MTLTP (see abbreviations), and follow the MT
Project’s conventions when possible. Use of [brackets] for in-text citations, as well as editor’s
inserts within quoted text. When the source uses [brackets] these are replaced by (parentheses).
Some exceptions are made to standard “Twain scholarly convention,” such as MTL with
volume numbers used for the MTP volumes, whereas this abbreviation in the past was used for
Paine’s volumes of letters, which I cite as MTLP, if I use them at all. A few conventions are
modified, such as LM instead of LoM for Life on the Mississippi. See Abbreviations for the full

Nearly every date given requires a citation, though some are encyclopedic in nature, or
calculated from sources. Because both primary and secondary sources are used, errors and
omissions have inevitably been introduced. Hopefully, more study of primary sources will
amend such shortcomings.

/and – Sam’s nearly always wrote “&” rather than “and.” Various editors have handled this
either way; as early as Paine in his 1917 two-volume work, Mark Twain’s Letters, replaced his
“&” signs with “and”s. The 1969 MTHHR also did this, though the later six volumes of MTL
left the “&” signs in. Because I have chosen to cite the most accessible source for the
researcher, MTHHR and page number are cited for Clemens’ letters to Rogers, though text may have been taken from MTP transcriptions, which do carry the “&” signs. This matter does not
affect meaning in any case.

– This symbol was used in Vol. I for incoming letters not reviewed. (Not used for Vol. 2 & 3)

Editor’s opinions:

The few opinions on events or interpretation of an entry follow all citation designators as well
as extra information following “Note”; These remarks are offered as simply one man’s view,
and every effort has been made to keep them short and pithy, without obstacle to the meaning
of the listing. Of course, I hold title to many more opinions than the few exposed here.
Admittedly, a work of this scope carries errors and inconsistencies. That’s what future appendixes, supplements and
editions are for. Ultimately, online status for the whole work may happen.

Misc: Bold Entries, Italics, Strike-outs, Quotations, use of sic:

All references to dates are bold, save for those within quotes. Also bold are first mentions of
persons and places (including lecture halls, etc.) within each date entry. Subjects and titles are
not in bold. Indented are letter, newspaper excerpts (boxed) and longer commentaries from
biographers and scholars. This aids ease of reading, finding one’s place and appearance. Italics
are used when the primary source uses underlines, except for newspaper reports using
underlines. They are also used for all inscriptions noted, especially those in books given as
gifts. When Sam Clemens uses strikeouts to convey his real or additional meaning, those are
usually retained — all other strikeouts, thought to be drafting strikeouts, are not included. Due
to all the variant spellings of the day, use of vernacular, and the many misspellings by some
writers, the use of sic has been limited to a few instances. Some surnames were spelled in more
than one way. Choices were made to stick with one variant, trying to follow the MTP’s
examples, or sometimes to put the variant in parentheses.

Corrected sources and method used; the “not in” listings:

Inevitably, sources contain errors. When an error is perceived it is sometimes, but not always,
reported. This is not to point any blame or to discredit any source or author, but merely to
report findings. Prejudice is given to more contemporary works, with Internet sources taking a
much lower priority. Apologies to egos aside, the errors, omissions and oddities should be

Also, some notable material is missing from standard works. Whenever possible these are
pointed out, as in “Not in Gribben,” or “Not in MTCI ,” to save the reader/researcher effort in
tracing back material. When errors were found in the MTP catalog, such as letters to Livy or
Whitmore that were catalogued as to SLC, these are left out or noted. The MTP catalogue
misleads when it lists a letter from a person for a company — one particular listing found was a
letter from a man FOR the U.S. Senate. Upon review it was discovered the man was a clerk in
Washington using Senate letterhead to write asking for Sam’s autograph — hardly a letter FOR
the Senate. In every such case the language in this work has been changed to, for example,
“John Doe wrote on US Senate letterhead asking for Sam’s autograph for his daughter,” etc.
Also, many listings from the Charles Webster & Co., which are nothing more than monthly
financial reports of several types, often without corresponding letters, have been catalogued by
the MTP under the month of the report. These have been placed in the following month here, as
they could not have been sent until the month closed — thus, March 1889’s monthly report is
placed as being sent in April, 1889. In all such cases a strict chronology is attempted. Is this an
error on the MTP’s part? No, merely a different way to catalog such entries. Likewise, when a
pack of Daily Reports was sent, the MTP dates these as a range of dates and places them at the
first date. We place them at the last date and note the range within that entry, since they could
not have been mailed earlier. Several such changes have been made. These do not reflect on the
scholarship of the MTP or of any other source.


A.D. Autobiographical dictations, MTP.
AC The American Claimant

ALR American Literary Review
AMT Autobiography of Mark Twain. Vol. 1 (2 & 3 forthcoming) Harriet Elinor Smith 1: 2: and Benjamin Griffin and Victor Fischer, eds. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. It
should be noted that the MTP uses Auto1, Auto2, etc for this, to differentiate from Neider’s edition. The volume number 1: , 2:, etc. should be sufficient to differentiate between this and
BAMT The Bible According to Mark Twain. Baetzhold, Howard G. and McCullough, Joseph B., eds. New York: Touchstone, 1995.
CS Christian Science
CY Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court
ET&S 1: 2:Early Tales & Sketches. Vol. 1, 1851-1864. Vol. 2, 1864-1865. Edited by Edgar M. Branch and Robert H. Hirst. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979-81.
FE Following the Equator
GA The Gilded Age

IA Innocents Abroad
JA Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc
LAL Library of American Literature
LLMT The Love Letters of Mark Twain. Edited by Dixon Wecter. New York: Harper & Bros 1949
LM Life on the Mississippi (other sources often use LoM)
LWMT A Lifetime With Mark Twain. Edited by Mary Lawton. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1925.
MMT My Mark Twain, by William Dean Howells. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1910.
MTA Mark Twain’s Autobiography. Edited by Albert Paine. 2 vols. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1924.
MTAq Mark Twain’s Aquarium. Edited by John Cooley. Athens: University of Georgia Prss, 1991.
MTB Mark Twain A Biography, by Albert Paine, 4 vols. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1912.
MTCI Mark Twain Complete Interviews. Edited by Gary Scharnhorst. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 2006.
MTE Mark Twain in Eruption, Edited by Bernard DeVoto. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1922..
MTFM Mark Twain’s Fables of Man. Edited by John S Tuckey. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972.
MTFWE Mark Twain’s Four Weeks in England 1907. Edited by Edward Connery Lathem. Hartford: The Mark Twain House & Museum, 2006.
MTHHR Mark Twain’s Correspondence with Henry Huttleston Rogers 1893-1909. Edited by Lewis Leary. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.
MTHL 1: 2: Mark Twain-Howells Letters: The Correspondence of Samuel L. Clemens and William Dean Howells. Edited by Henry Nash Smith and William M. Gibson. 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960.
MTJ Mark Twain Journal. Edited by Thomas A. Tenney.
MTL 1: – 6: Mark Twain’s Letters. Volumes 1-6. 1853-1875. Edited by Edgar M. Branch, et al. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988-2002.
MTLE 1: – 5: Mark Twain’s Letters, Electronic Volumes 1-5. 1876-1880. Mark Twain Project.

MTLP 1: – 2: Mark Twain’s Letters. 2 vols. Edited by Albert Bigelow Paine. New York: Harper & Bros, 1917.
MTLTP Mark Twain’s Letters to His Publishers, 1867-1894. Edited by Hamlin Hill. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.
MTMF Mark Twain to Mrs. Fairbanks. Edited by Dixon Wecter. San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1949.
MTOW Mark Twain’s Other Woman, by Laura Skandera Trombley. New York: Knopf, 2010.
MTP Mark Twain Papers, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
MTPO Mark Twain Project Online (as of late 2007)
MT & GWC Mark Twain and George W. Cable, by Alan Turner.
MTNJ 1: – 3: Mark Twain’s Notebooks & Journals. Volumes 1 – 3. 1855-1891. Edited by Frederick Anderson, et al. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.
MTS&B Mark Twain’s Satires & Burlesques. Franklin R. Rogers, ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.
NAR North American Review
NB TS Sam’s notebooks, given with a TS (transcription page #)
PW Pudd’nhead Wilson
P&P The Prince and the Pauper
S&MT Susy and Mark Twain, by Edith Colgate Salsbury, Harper & Row, 1965.

TS Transcription
TS The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
TSA Tom Sawyer Abroad
TSD Tom Sawyer, Detective
(note: abbreviations are usually not used for persons)


Type of Feedback