The New Jersey Legislature chartered the Camden and Amboy Rail Road and Transportation Company (C&A) in February 1830. This was the first railroad in New Jersey and the third in the United States. The C&A's corporate architect, first president and chief engineer was Robert L. Stevens (1787–1856), who was also the country’s leading builder of steamboats. The new railroad and its sister entity, the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company, were created to service a heavily traveled passenger and freight route across New Jersey. By 1871, when the Pennsylvania Railroad leased the Camden & Amboy, the C&A and its affiliates controlled key rail corridors linking Jersey City and the Hudson River crossing, and South Amboy and lower New York Bay with Camden and Philadelphia.